This is a centralized collection of documents approved by Friends in Ohio Yearly Meeting. We hope to make these documents – especially the minutes of our various decision-making bodies – available to the wider world.

Our Book of Discipline

The Book of Discipline of Ohio Yearly Meeting is probably the most important document that we have. It is the core statement of our shared understandings as a community. The Book of Discipline contains explanations about how we conduct ourselves as Friends, how we understand the nature of our community, and the beliefs that undergird our practical Christian faith. We invite you to read it online.

Yearly Meeting Minutes

Each year, in the month of August, we gather in Barnesville, Ohio for the annual gathering of Ohio Yearly Meeting. In addition to shared worship, fellowship and fun, it is at this time that we make the most important decisions for our community as a whole. These deliberations and decisions are recorded in minutes. These recorded decisions are very precious to us, because they reflect our sense of how God is guiding us together at that particular moment in time. While God may eventually guide us to amend our decisions, this is the fullest measure of light that we have received as a community in Christ.

Quaker Writings

Crossroads Meeting in Flint, Michigan, has put together an extensive collection of online works that many will find helpful in explore the distinctive Quaker approach to Christian faith. Here, you can access both historical and contemporary documents that will spur devotion and contemplation.

DQC is a digital library containing full text and page images of over 500 individual Quaker works from the 17th and 18th centuries. Earlham School of Religion’s special search algorithms provide multiple search functions and an interface for viewing pages.

Historical Documents

The Synopsis of Principles and Testimonies of Conservative Friends was authored and approved in the early 20th century by representatives of all of the Conservative Friends bodies in existence at that time. This document serves as an historical window into the faith of Conservative Friends one century ago.

Il Signore passò davanti a lui, e gridò:
“Il Signore! Il Signore!
Il Dio misericordioso e pietoso,
lento all’ira,
ricco di bontà e fedeltà,
che conserva la sua bontà fino alla millesima generazione,
che perdona l’iniquità, la trasgressione e il peccato,
ma non terrà il colpevole per innnocente;
che punisce l’iniquità dei padri sopra i figli e sopra i figli dei figli, fino alla terza e alla quarta generazione!”
(Es. 34, 6-7)

Aderisci come noi alla Lega contro la caccia vai sul sito e fai la iscrizione 2019 con 20 Euro. Con Bonifico, bollettino postale come ho fatto io o carta di credito.

Un segno tangibile di nonviolenza anche contro gli animali. Come animatore nazionale sono entusiasta della cosa e purtroppo non avendo un auto non posso dare un aiuto concreto per gli spostamenti degli animali.

La prima decisione con acquisto a parte del loro calendario è avvenuta due anni fa. La Lega è membro della EFAH, dice testualmente la tessera LAC. Sono Iscritto 2019 anche ad Emergency, sebbene non sia entusiasta del gruppo locale di volontari ed Altroconsumo per la difesa del Consumatore.


PS: Puoi donare per confermare i domini di 6 nostri siti e le due pec. Non abbiamo fondi 8 per mille come gli altri o contributi pubblici come i cattolici e valdesi (anche per le scelte indirette! Un vero scandalo dei protestanti e cattolici).

Aiutaci con un bonifico bancario dunque

Ecco IBAN di Maurizio Benazzi, animatore blogger QUACCHERO CRISTIANO CONSERVATIVE IN ITALIA,:
IT 22W0305801604100571954856 di Che Banca!

For Europa as Sepa system: MICSITM1 (XXX optional only if request)

For USA and World (except Europe): MICSITM3 (XXX optional only if request)

Info point – Telefono/fax 0039 0331 641844 o 392/1943729 anche Whatsapp
Indirizzo postale: via Luigi Tovo 3, I 21057 OLGIATE OLONA VA
skype maurizio.benazzi email o pec

Reading for April 25 from Praying for Justice. “If there is among you anyone in need, a member of your community in any of your towns within the land that the Lord your God is giving you, do not be hard-hearted or tight-fisted toward your needy neighbor.” Deuteronomy 15: 7


I ask

That I might share

An act of love

So you see I care

David Herr

Reading for April 24 from Praying for Justice. “I will make a covenant of peace with them and eliminate harmful beasts from the land so that they may live securely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods.” Ezekiel 34: 25

24.04.2019 – Australia – Robert Burrowes

Tackling the ‘Impossible’: Ending Violence
(Image by Fundación Chile Inteligente)

Whenever, in ordinary circumstances, the subject of violence comes up, most people throw up their hands in horror and comment along the lines that it is ‘in our genes’, ‘nothing can be done about it’ or other words that reflect the powerlessness that most people feel around violence.

It is true that violence is virtually ubiquitous, has a near-infinite variety of manifestations and, at its most grotesque (as nuclear war or run-away climate catastrophe), even threatens human extinction in the near-term.

Nevertheless, anyone who pays attention to the subject of violence in any detail soon discovers that plenty of people are interested in tackling this problem, even if it is ‘impossible’. Moreover, of course, at least some people recognize that while we must tackle each manifestation of violence, understanding the cause of violence is imperative if we are to successfully tackle its many manifestations at their source. To do all of this effectively, however, is a team effort. And hopefully, one day, this team will include all of us.

In the meantime, let me start by telling you a little about some of the people who are already working to end violence by tackling one or more of its many manifestations. These individuals are part of a worldwide network set up to focus on ending violence – ‘The People’s Charter to Create a Nonviolent World’ – and they have signed a pledge to do so.

Concerned about US government threats to Iran and Venezuela, several Charter signatories were part of one or both recent peace delegations to Iran and Venezuela respectively. These delegations were designed to open more lines of communication and to demonstrate solidarity with those who do not submit to US hegemony.

The 28-member US peace delegation to Iran from 25 February to 6 March 2019 included long-term nonviolent activists Margaret Flowers, Kevin Zeese and David Hartsough. Unfortunately for David, author of Waging Peace: Global Adventures of a Lifelong Activist and director ofPeaceworkers, his trip didn’t go as planned. If you would like to read a compelling account of his time in Iran with some wonderful Iranians, while learning something about what it means to be on the wrong end of US sanctions, you will find it here: ‘An American Casualty of U.S. Economic Sanctions on Iran’. Glad you got the lifesaving medical treatment from our Iranian friends that you needed David, despite the sanctions! And it is a tragedy that Iran has recently suffered even more, as a result of the devastating floods that have hit the country, with the sanctions cruelly denying them vital emergency assistance. See ‘Stop the ongoing U.S. economic terrorism against Iran and help its people!’

In relation to Venezuela, a 13-member peace and solidarity delegation from North America landed in Caracas, Venezuela on the weekend of 9-10 March 2019. The delegation included leaders of antiwar groups from the US and Canada and, once again, Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers of ‘Popular Resistance’ and ‘Clearing the Fog’ podcasts. You can read an account of this delegation’s findings in Kevin and Margaret’s highly informative report ‘Venezuela: US Imperialism Is Based On Lies And Threats’.

Another initiative to support Venezuelans was outlined in the article A Nonviolent Strategy to Defeat a US Military Invasion of Venezuela.

Traveling widely to witness and demonstrate solidarity with those on the receiving end of US military violence, another long-term nonviolent activist, Kathy Kelly, recently wrote an article pointing out that ‘Every War Is a War against Children’ in which she evocatively documented examples of what this means for those children living in the war zones we call Yemen and Afghanistan. In an earlier article, Kathy questioned the morality of those corporations – such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, General Dynamics and Raytheon – that profit from the killing their weapons inflict. See ‘Can We Divest from Weapons Dealers?’

Environmental journalist Robert Hunziker continues to fearlessly research and truthfully document the ongoing assaults that humans are inflicting on Earth’s biosphere. In his most recent article ‘The Blue Ocean Event and Collapsing Ecosystems’, Robert straightforwardly explains the content of a recent interview of Dr. Peter Wadhams, the world’s leading Arctic scientist. Robert notes that ‘Currently, the Arctic is heating up about 4 times faster than the rest of the planet… the temp difference between the Arctic and the tropics is dropping precipitously… thus, driving the jet streams less… creating meandering jet streams… in turn, producing extreme weather events throughout the Northern Hemisphere, especially in mid-latitudes where most of the world’s food is grown.’ Robert also notes that the study of ancient ice cores by a team from the British Antarctic Survey, University of Cambridge and University of Birmingham found ‘major reductions in sea ice in the Arctic’ which will crank up (via temperature amplification as a result of no Arctic sea ice) Greenland regional temperatures ‘by 16°C in less than a decade’ with horrific implications for life on Earth. Thank you, Robert, for reporting what the corporate media won’t touch and even many activists find too terrifying to seriously contemplate.

In Chile, Pía Figueroa continues her heavy involvement in efforts to network those committed to peace and nonviolence and to develop media channels that report the truth. Pía reports that‘Pressenza International Press Agency’, which celebrated its tenth anniversary last November ‘in more than 40 places of the world’, continues to advance its contribution ‘with a journalism focused on peace and nonviolence, to a world in which all human beings have a place and their rights are fully respected, in a framework of disarmed and demilitarized societies, capable of re-establishing the ecological balance through governments of real and participatory democracy.’

Since attending the Media Forum organized in the city of Chongqing, China, by CCTV+ and CGTN, in October last year, Pía has been busy organizing the upcoming Latinamerican Humanist Forum in Santiago with the objective of ‘Building Convergences’, as its slogan points out. It will be held on 10-12 May with the participation of many grassroots and social organizations involved in more than twenty networks of nonviolent action and inspired by the European Humanist Forum that took place in Madrid, Spain, in May 2018.

Anwar A. Khan was born into ‘a liberal Muslim family in Bangladesh’. As a 16 year old college student, he participated in the ‘Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which resulted in horrendous loss of life, genocide against Bangladesh’s intelligentsia and systematic rapes.’ This experience taught him the nature of the US establishment as he was ‘on the battle field along with so many friends of mine and Indian soldiers to fight back the obnoxious nexus of the Pakistani military regime and the Whitehouse establishment’ to create Bangladesh. Khan Bhai went on to complete a post-graduate education, before embarking on a 43-year (so far) business career, involving many different levels of corporate engagement and which took him to many countries of the world, including Venezuela in 2010 where he met both Hugo Chavez and Nicolás Maduro.

He also writes regularly in his spare time and recently wrote an article highlighting the adverse impact of the lack of infrastructure under which many impoverished countries suffer, given the way in which the global economy functions to exploit them. In the article, he describes an inferno that started on the night of 20 February 2019 in a building at Chawkbazar, a 300-year-old Dhaka neighbourhood, ‘where chemicals for making deodorants and other household uses were illegally stored’. The fire ‘quickly spread to four nearby buildings where many people were trapped. Hundreds of firefighters rushed to the scene but traffic jams in the narrow streets held them up. It took almost 12 hours to bring the fire under control….’ The horrific inferno claimed about 100 lives and more were injured. For the full account, see ‘After Nimtali, now Chawkbazar inferno hell, a crisis of humanity’.

Commenting on the current project that she is organizing with friends, Lori Lightning outlines the rationale behind ‘Bear Bones Parenting’:

‘There’s no course or exam to pass to become a parent, and most try to figure this out once a parent, and usually in an exhausted overwhelmed state. Bedtimes, meals, chores, and healthy open communication all become a task without a trusted framework in place.

‘Based on 51 years of combined wisdom as educators, counselors, health practitioners, moms, step moms and foster moms, Bear Bones Parenting offers an intuitive formula to demystify the basics of parenting and a workbook with tools for reflection and wellness practices to take you actively through day to day living no matter where you are at in your life. You dedicate 15 minutes a day and in trade stop being overwhelmed. A “do it yourself” workbook filled with tools to turn life into what you envision for yourself and your family.

‘Our cast of puppets help to inspire playful reflection on our children’s temperaments and our own. Eventual creation of short videos will be easily accessible for busy parents and provide some examples of how things typically play out with temperaments and inspiration of the Bear way, which is curious, intuitive, firm and loving.

‘We hope that BBP can help reduce parental stress and frustration so there is time to connect in joy and curiosity with our children and foster their independence.’

For more information, you can contact Lori at this email address: <>

Professor Mazin Qumsiyeh is volunteer Director of The Palestine Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability (PIBS) and the Palestine Museum of Natural History (PMNH) but he is also actively engaged in the Palestinian struggle for liberation from Israeli occupation. As he evocatively noted in a recent Easter reflection: ‘This is the tenth Easter I celebrate after returning to Palestine in 2008. When we native Christian Palestinians have a few moments to meditate and reflect in this season, we reflect that some 2.5 billion human beings believe in a message that originated with a Palestinian baby born in a manger here and was crucified for being the first revolutionary Palestinian to push for caring for the sick and the poor.

‘We reflect on the real message of Jesus, a message of love and coexistence. The harsh reality on the ground reminds us of our responsibility to shape a better future.

‘We are hopeful because we take a long view of history. Some 150,000 years ago, humans migrated from Africa using Palestine as the passage way to Western Asia and then the rest of the world. 12,000 years ago, this area became the center of development for agriculture (the Fertile Crescent). This was where we humans first domesticated animals like goats and donkeys and plants like wheat, barley, chickpeas, and lentils. This transformation allowed our ancestors time to evolve what we now call “civilization”. Hence, the first writings, the first music, and art, and the first thoughts of deities. From our Aramaic alphabet came the Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and Hebrew alphabets. Aramaic was the language of Jesus and much of our current Palestinian Arabic is still Aramaic words.’

Mazin continues to travel regularly, lecturing about initiatives of the museum but also about the political reality in Palestine. If you would like to volunteer to assist the museum’s projects, or to donate money, books, natural history items or anything else that would be useful, you are welcome to contact Mazin and his colleagues at <>

Finally, we are deeply saddened to report the passing of Tom Shea, a long-time stalwart in the struggle for a better world and one of the original team of individuals who launched ‘The People’s Charter to Create a Nonviolent World’ on 11 November 2011. We include below the testament of his great friend and fellow nonviolent activist, Leonard Eiger:

‘For Tom Shea, Peace WAS the Way

‘My dear friend and fellow Ground Zero member Tom Shea passed away peacefully in the early morning hours of April 3rd surrounded by his family.

‘Earlier in his life Tom had been a Jesuit, a high school teacher, and had started an alternative high school and Jesuit Volunteer Corp: Midwest. He had also been involved in social justice issues on the national level with the Jesuits. Ground Zero member Bernie Meyer remembers Tom with great fondness, from being a student at St. Ignatius High School in Cleveland where Tom was teaching, to resisting together at Ground Zero many years later.

‘Tom was 47 when he left Cleveland for Traverse City, Michigan in 1977. There he met his partner Darylene, and they were inseparable from then on. Together, they participated in the Nuclear Freeze movement, and were part of the Michigan Peace Team. They traveled to New York for the second Conference on Disarmament in 1982. They protested both the first Gulf War and the war in Iraq. They also engaged in war tax resistance.

‘At Darylene’s suggestion, they attended a course in conflict mediation in the early ‘80s at a time when there was little written on the subject. That experience led them to a course taught by Quakers at Swarthmore College in 1986. In 1990 Tom and Darylene founded the five-county Conflict Resolution Service in Northern Michigan and trained the first group of volunteer mediators. Their mission was to promote peace and civility in the community through the use of mediator guided dialogue. In the early days of the program, volunteers met in church basements and around kitchen tables to train, role play and share experiences. They would travel to the homes of people needing mediation, focusing on resolving family and neighborhood conflicts.

‘Tom and Darylene moved to Snoqualmie, Washington in 2007 to spend more time with Darylene’s children. Tom got involved in community issues and continued his war tax resistance work. You could find him every April 15th, in front of the local post office, offering tax resistance information.

‘I was still leading a social justice ministry at the Snoqualmie United Methodist Church when one day Tom called the church office and asked who was doing social justice work in the area. We connected immediately due to common work and friends. Soon, Tom and I were making the pilgrimage together across the water to Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action, and the rest (as they say) is history.

‘I have spent countless hours with Tom and Darylene, discussing world affairs and working together on strategies and tactics for our work with Ground Zero. Tom and Darylene have been inseparable as both life partners and co-conspirators for peace. Tom once said that Darylene is like a Jesuit herself: “Jesuits are taken as very scholarly people and she’s very scholarly.”

‘In addition to working on media and communications for Ground Zero, and planning vigils and nonviolent direct actions at the Bangor Trident nuclear submarine base, Tom put himself on the line many times, often entering the roadway blocking traffic, both on the County and Federal sides, symbolically closing the base and risking arrest. Tom also created street theatre scripts that have been used during vigils at the submarine base to entertain and educate people.

‘Robert Burrowes, who cofounded ‘The People’s Charter to Create a Nonviolent World’, said that“Tom was one of the true legends in my life. A long-standing symbol of, and nonviolent fighter for, everything that could be in our world.” When all is said and done, Tom’s life can be summed up by A.J Muste: “There is no way to peace. Peace is the way.”

‘We will be scattering some of Tom’s ashes (per his wishes) at Ground Zero Center during our August Hiroshima-Nagasaki weekend of remembrance and action.

‘I invite you to honor Tom’s memory by supporting the work of the National War Tax Resistance Coordinating Committee. There are many ways we can engage in war tax resistance in the context of a broad range of nonviolent strategies for social change.’

While diminished by the passing of Tom, the Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action continues ‘to explore the meaning and practice of nonviolence from a perspective of deep spiritual reflection, providing a means for witnessing to and resisting all nuclear weapons, especially Trident. We seek to go to the root of violence and injustice in our world and experience the transforming power of love through nonviolent direct action.’ You can read about their ongoing efforts on their website, Ground Zero, which also features a ‘Current Action Alert: Stop the “Low-Yield” Trident Warhead!’

Each of the individuals mentioned above is part of the ongoing and steadily expanding effort to end the violence in our world. They refuse to accept that violence cannot be ended, and each has chosen to focus on working to end one or more manifestations of violence, according to their particular interests. If you would like to join these people, you are welcome to sign the online pledge of ‘The People’s Charter to Create a Nonviolent World’.

If your own interest is campaigning on a peace, climate, environment or social justice issue, consider doing it strategically. See Nonviolent Campaign Strategy.

If your focus is a defense or liberation struggle being undertaken by a national group, consider enhancing its strategic impact. See Nonviolent Defense/Liberation Strategy.

If your preference is addressing the climate and environmental catastrophes systematically, consider participating in ‘The Flame Tree Project to Save Life on Earth’.

If you would like to tackle violence at its source, consider revising your parenting in accordance with ‘My Promise to Children’. If you want the evidence to understand why this is so crucial, seeWhy Violence?’ and Fearless Psychology and Fearful Psychology: Principles and Practice’.

If you are aware enough to know that you are not dealing effectively with our deepening crisis, consider doing the personal healing necessary to do so. See ‘Putting Feelings First’.

It may be that ending human violence is impossible, as many believe. But there are a great number of people around the world who do not accept this and who are struggling, relentlessly, to end violence before it ends us. What about you?


Since 1977 LAV has protected animals and fought against all forms of exploitation and cruelty.

It has lobbied laws in favour of animals and monitored their enforcement. Through awareness and information campaigns, it has promoted a cultural shift in our relationship with other animals, without distinction of species.

Your choices can make a difference.

Support our work to protect animals today. With your donation you will give power to our actions, support our projects, give value to our fights, battle against all forms of cruelty, seek justice for all abuse, offer a future to the animals we look after.

This is the moment to stand by those who defend and protect animals, a donation to LAV will change the faith of many animals.

You and us, united for the animals. Donate now.

Viale Regina Margherita, 177 –00198 Roma

Tel 06 446.13.25 | Fax 06 446.13.26
Email | PEC | C.F.: 80426840585



I ask God

To guide my speech

For I never know

Who I may reach

David Herr

Ho pensato di lanciare una campagna per raccogliere 30 euro, per fare una tessera come
Diamo una mano a chi ogni giorno si batte contro la violenza e gli abusi nei confronti di esseri senzienti: riusciamo a trovare 10 persone che versano 3 euro a testa?
Pay Pall, Bil, bonifico bancario, poste pay, consegna diretta, … Chiedetemi e vi informo.
Sarebbe la prima volta in assoluto, che un gruppo di Lettori aderisce sul web ad una associazione meritoria e importante per il benessere degli animali ossia per la Salvaguardia del Creato.

Reading for April 23 from Praying for Justice. “Though you have made me see troubles, many and bitter, you will restore my life again; from the depths of the earth you will again bring me up.” Psalm 71: 20



“Therefore, to this Light and Law of thy heart, I must still recommend thee as the one thing needful and that by which thou canst only be enabled to begin the work of thy salvation. And this alone can only qualify thee to begin to carry it on and finally assist thee to lay the top-stone there of. But the work is great and gradual, therefore it requires time, patience, and perseverance..” Letter to Ebenezer Chichester 9.13.1805, –Dear Friend Letters & Essays of Elias Hicks edited by Paul Buckley
Through my whole life I have been in camps of weighty mystics, starting with Quaker uncles and aunts and then also camped with mystically alert of other traditions too; transcendentalists in types as westerners could know them each. I enjoyed good laugh reading this here…
PS. Cadbury’s wife Lydia was a woman of strong views. For one, she was very skeptical of the popular trend among some Quakers toward mysticism. “Had another mystical experience, eh?” She once said to a visiting Friend. “Tush. I’d rather do a load of wash.”
But then balance tempered in experience here, “ ..Religion without spirit is a dead form. Spiritualism without religion devolves into ego-driven nihilistic solipsistic ranterism. Both are harmful to the practitioner and those around them.

22.04.2019 – Redacción Chile

This post is also available in: Spanish

Humanity or the abyss

By Sergio Rodríguez Gelfenstein

Perhaps humanity has not lived through a moment as complicated as the present since the irruption of Adolf Hitler and Nazi fascism in 1933, which led to the worst war conflagration in history between 1939 and 1945. The evidence points in the direction of understanding and accepting that the world is in the hands of a clique of extremist and fundamentalist fanatics who, as in the second decade of the last century, look with desperation at the fact that capitalism has entered into crisis and must save it by any means.

The fundamental difference between one moment and the next is that on that occasion the atomic bomb was used to “formally” end the war and could now be used to “formally” start it.

This is what can be inferred by looking at the draft budget that Trump presented for 2020: it was undoubtedly elaborated on the basis of a war hypothesis. It increased the appropriations for the defence secretariat and national security, while reducing it for health, work, education, the environment and international cooperation. One of its priorities is the construction of the fence on the border with Mexico at an irrational cost of 8,600 million dollars, of which 5,000 million comes from the national security budget and 3,600 million from defense.

The reduction for the State Department and international cooperation is 23%, transport 22%, housing 16.4%, health 12%, education 10%. At the same time, national security rose 7.8%, defence 5%, NASA 1.4% and veterans’ affairs 7.5%.

Trump’s own explanation: “The budget improves military preparedness, prioritizing strategic competition with China and Russia. It also maintains efforts to deter and counter dishonest regimes such as North Korea and Iran and to defeat terrorist threats. These resources will be used to maintain 2.1 million active and reserve military forces, as well as to acquire 12 warships, two large experimental unmanned surface ships and 110 fighter planes.

The U.S. president took note of a November 2018 report by the National Defense Strategy Committee. It is a group of experts created by Congress with bipartisan participation, which reported that the United States is in the middle of a situation of strategic risk of such magnitude that it has no precedent: The US would have lost military superiority over Russia and China.

The report assures that the political and economic model of “prosperity, freedom and security” that the United States built after the Second World War -without counterweights that would make it opposed to its hegemony, especially after the disappearance of the USSR in 1991- has begun to alter visibly after Russia’s return to stellar levels in the international arena and China’s ascent to the status of economic and military power. All of which undermines the maintenance of US supremacy and dominance.

In the course of this year China has dealt two powerful blows in areas in which it supposed infinite superiority to the United States: at the beginning of the year it managed to land a space probe on the hidden side of the moon for the first time in history and then launched 5G technology, -prioritizing the United States that it had arrived first of all at 3G and 4G-, it came to surpass any hint of rational patience in the feverish minds of American leaders.

The surprise was great: last June 12 the Madrid tabloid “El País” had reported:

“The 5G is destined to be an important economic engine of digital societies, but its guts have yet to be defined. By the end of 2018, the first phase of standardisation is expected to be completed and the definition will be completed by December 2019. From then on, all companies will play with the same currency. Until then, each one tries to influence in its own way the creation of the technology.

Just one month earlier, on May 3, the BBC World website said:

“It is a race that China and the United States are fighting side by side, with other competitors such as South Korea, Germany and the United Kingdom in the dispute.

However, China launched that technology before its competitors realized it, taking a substantial step in the technology race. The possible military use of this know-how frightens the United States.

On the political front, Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit to Europe – during which 29 cooperation agreements worth 20 billion dollars were signed, and China’s strategic “Silk Road and Belt” project – dealt a heavy blow to US hegemony and absolute control over Europe.

In this context, making clear the contradictions within the EU, the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, informed at the beginning of February that an agreement had been reached with Russia on the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline. This transcendental decision faces threats from the US, which is looking for an outlet for its gas surpluses, and puts pressure on the EU to buy its gas even at prices higher than Russian gas. Nord Stream 2 is an expansion of the Nord Stream pipeline, built from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea, and will allow for a doubling of the natural gas supply. At the time, Merkel announced that this agreement had been achieved thanks to the concomitance of criteria between France and Germany to achieve the signing of the agreement.

However, the president of France, Emmanuel Macron, cancelled his participation in the Munich Security Conference, held between 15 and 17 February, in which he planned to deliver a joint speech with the German chancellor. It is evident that either one of the two leaders lied, or that US pressure on France had an effect.

To counter the Chinese offensive in the old continent, when Macron received Xi Jinping in Paris, he was accompanied by Merkel and the president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, trying to show a common front to curb China’s growing presence in the form of investments and expansion of bilateral trade with almost all countries, which irritates the American empire.

The aforementioned report of the US National Strategy Commission considers that actions of this type generate a confrontation with the G-7 and call into question the functionality of NATO by threatening the cohesion of the EU. It also points out that this weakness is caused by the lack of political vision of Republicans and democrats, who established budgetary controls from 2011 onwards, thus curtailing the possibilities of ‘improving’ the country’s defence, generating a security crisis for the US which they classify as a “national emergency”.

The drafters of the document affirm that the situation created modified in a negative way the so-called “regional military balances”, reducing the effectiveness of the “US deterrence against its adversaries”. And they predict that in the event of a military confrontation the US would suffer a great deal of human and material losses, even losing the war if it is unleashed against China or Russia. All the more so if the war were unleashed simultaneously against the two powers, which could add allies such as Iran, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and other countries.

This document explains the unusual increase in U.S. military spending at a time when its economy is facing serious problems, while the trade balance and domestic spending have deficits that point to the rise without showing ways of solution.

All this has given oxygen to the most conservative movement of the US political spectrum grouped around the Tea Party that gathers sectors of both parties of the establishment, placing itself above the traditional US political system. Some of its emblematic figures such as Rand Paul, Marcos Rubio, Mike Pompeo and Sarah Palin have achieved a great protagonism in the political system of the country, managing to “recruit” Donald Trump to carry out his crusade by presenting himself before public opinion as a new right that tries to recover the foundational principles of the USA, in order to make politics in the 21st century.

This movement has promoted the denial of climate change, as well as the repudiation of the political and intellectual elites it accuses of causing the country’s weakness. It also strongly opposes mixed marriages, divorce and abortion, assuming fundamentalist, sectarian and fanatical religious positions.

This group acts in the same way as, in the 1920s, Adolf Hitler, Anton Drexler, Philip Bouhler, Franz Xaver Schwarz and Max Amann, who built from nothing the National Socialist party that brought them to power in 1933 by electoral means, allying with the Catholic Center and the Nationalist party. The rest of the story is known: war, genocide of minorities, concentration camps and death, as an expression of the wake of hatred that was sown by the Nazis throughout Europe.

This is the danger facing humanity. It is not just about the defence of Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua, Iran, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea or Syria. It is about safeguarding a world in which one can live in peace while respecting the political and religious beliefs of all.

The US does not want to allow this. The most backward sectors in the international arena, first and foremost the ultra-right in Europe and Latin America, support this commitment to genocide and war. Responsibility is universal if we want to save the planet for our children and grandchildren.


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Dietrich Bonhoeffer

We must act and dare the appropiateness and not whatever comes to our mind not floating in the likelihood but grasp the reality as brave as we can be freedom lies in action not in the absence of mind obedience knows the essence of good and satisfies it, freedom dares to act and returns God the ultimate judgment of what is right and what is wrong, Obedience performs blindly but Freedom is wide awake Freedom wants to know why, Obedience has its hands tied, Freedom is inventive obedient man respects God’s commands and by virtu of his Freedom, he creats new commands. Both Obedience and Freedom come true in responsability (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)

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