05.08.2017 Democracy Now!

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U.S. Justice Department to Cut Funds to Cities over Immigration Policies
(Image by Democracy Now!)

Attorney General Jeff Sessions moved Thursday to cut off federal aid to four cities accused by the Justice Department of failing to turn over jailed immigrants to federal immigration authorities.

The move will deny funds from a program combating drug trafficking and gang violence to the cities of Baltimore, Maryland; Albuquerque, New Mexico; and the California cities of San Bernardino and Stockton. Sessions’s move follows a series of actions taken by the Trump administration cracking down on sanctuary cities that limit cooperation with immigration authorities.

03.08.2017 – New York City Corporate Europe Observatory

Building Resistance to Trump on Staten Island

By Jane LaTour

New York City, with an estimated population of 8.55 million inhabitants, is made up of 5 distinctive boroughs—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Staten Island.  Most New Yorkers think of Staten Island, the city’s largest, whitest and least populous borough, as the most right-wing part of the city.  After all, it provided the margins that put both former Mayors Michael Bloomberg and Rudolph Giuliani into office, and in November 2016, gave Donald Trump 57 percent of their vote. It’s the borough where Eric Garner was murdered by cops.

However, like most other places, Staten Island is not a homogenous, politically monochromatic borough, but is comprised of diverse people of various political stripes, including lots of progressives. Like other boroughs, it’s made up of geographical points—the North Shore and the South Shore, and neighborhoods, each with its own character and demographics. A 25-minute trip on the Staten Island Ferry brings you to the borough that has famously dwelt in the shadow of Manhattan, but is abuzz with activists who are applying imaginative approaches to all of the issues facing people across America.

Recently, we spent a couple of days talking to Staten Islanders.  We started out at Communications Workers of America (CWA) Local 1102, one of the hotspots of community organizing. The walls of the local’s meeting room are vibrant with hand-drawn posters from picket lines, marches and rallies. The spark plug behind the activity is Steve Lawton, Local 1102’s president,  now serving in his first term. A native of New Jersey, Lawton moved to Staten Island twenty years ago for a job at Verizon. Since then, he has held every elected position in the local—shop steward, business agent, organizer, executive board member—and now president. His road to union activist began when his natural-born rebel instincts kicked in and he witnessed injustice in the workplace. His experience with Occupy Wall Street expanded his vision, as did his college studies.  The stoicism of working people who have to cope with so much abuse on a daily basis frustrates and motivates him. “The real message is—we don’t have to take this,” he said. Devising democratic fight-back campaigns, alongside the members he represents, is his passion.

One transformative campaign was an organizing drive at an E-Z Pass Call Center, with 306 workers. This has turned into a very long struggle. It brought the small local, largely made up of Verizon technicians, face-to-face with one of the nation’s most notorious union-busting law firms, Jackson Lewis. The firm prides itself on being a leader in the field of union-busting. Local 1102 continues the fight on behalf of the Call Center workers, the people who originally approached the union asking for help in addressing their conditions: overworked and underpaid. “It’s a hard fight and we are still up against it,” Lawton said. “But this is their first experience of working with union folks, and good leadership is now showing up.”

A subsequent challenge for the local was the Verizon strike in 2016, which lasted six-and-a half-weeks. During this stand-off between labor and management,  there was ample opportunity to develop creative approaches to building leadership among the ranks of Local 1102. One souvenir of that struggle now hangs on the wall of the local’s meeting room— the “Wall of Honor” Banner. It features dates  and notches—each one marking a day of the strike—and each customer convinced to turn away from entering a Verizon store—to loud eruptions of cheers from the members out on the picket line. The brainchild of Shop Steward Kevin Joyce, it sent a strong visual message to the company about the level of community support for the strikers. Another innovative strategy took on replacement workers—silently. A long line of red-shirted strikers marched to a hotel that was allowing the replacement workers to convene in their parking lot, and stood silently outside while a delegation met with management; then walked back to the local—triumphant—replacement workers routed.

“My main theme is that the mission is greater than the union it serves. It has to be present and active in the community,” Lawton said. To that end, the local is developing an organizational model that empowers the members to take responsibility for planning and carrying out their activities. “Those who choose to take part set the agenda. They use their intellect, imagination, and creativity, and apply them to their workplace problems, and to all of the issues around us,” he said. There are now committees that meet to deal with workplace and safety issues, and training for rank and file leaders to explore issues related to economic justice.

The coalition, Sustainable Staten Island, grew out of the Verizon strike. It now has a vibrant presence in the community. “It’s important for labor to be involved and to come together with our community partners. In this way, our impact is broader,” Lawton said. “Economic, workplace rights, human rights, and environmental rights are all connected. The same principles of liberty and freedom apply, and we can’t limit our fight for these rights to the halls of our legislatures,” he said. Sustainable Staten Island works with other unions, the New York State Nurses Association, the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 726, the Professional Staff Congress, the American Postal Workers Union, among others, and several grass-roots organizations, including Staten Island Peace Action, Move Forward Staten Island, and others.

On June 22nd, Sustainable Staten Island held a public forum on economic inequality, with expert speakers from a range of community organizations. “Over 50 Staten Islanders from diverse backgrounds filled the room to discuss Runaway Inequality. Whereas Les Leopold wrote the book, CWA Local 1102 is putting it into action. There is a political renaissance happening and the epicenter is Staten Island, New York,” said Lawton. We had an opportunity to talk to many of those in the room, and to listen to the remarks of the panelists.

Staten Island Peace Action was well-represented. Two of its founding members attended: Rich Florentino, a retired engineer, and current candidate for a seat on the City Council—on the Democrats’ side, and Jim Clark, an activist whose organizing spans decades. Three young organizers, Mike and Ashley Santangelo, and Delfina Vannucci, described the mission of the peace group and its various activities. Members took part in the April 29th Climate March and Rally on Staten Island (which attracted over 500 people), while their main focus is working against war and violence, and related issues. They show documentary films about how other nations are impacted by the militarism of the U.S. They distribute fliers at the SI Ferry Terminal, explaining where taxpayers’ money is going for military expenditures. They took part in a blockade and vigil at the United Nations on June 17th, in support of UN negotiations to adopt a treaty to ban nuclear weapons. And they engage in conversations on Parent-Teacher Nights to present alternatives for the children to military service. They have lobbied against the depot for storage of long-range nuclear missiles on Staten Island.

Ashley Santangelo was encouraged to join SIPA by her husband, Mike, but has always been opposed to war. “I was a senior in high school when 9/11 happened. My peers were all talking about the need to go to war, but I disagreed with that sentiment,” she said. “It’s tricky to get people involved in these global issues because they don’t see the relevance. Especially now, with so many domestic crises. But I like the effort that Peace Action makes to do that,” she said. One of the events favored by Delfina Vannucci is the bi-monthly lectures. “Our last event was about the risks of nuclear war in the Trump era,” she said. The group also tables at various events. “This Saturday, we’ll be at La Isla, a festival with music and performances. Peace Action also takes part in events held by Black Lives Matter, Occupy the Block, Pride Day, and other LGBTQ events,” she said.

CWA Local 1102 Shop Steward Joe Tarulli acted as moderator for the panel discussion. He has taken part in the training provided by the local for community and union activists. “We have about seventy participants through Sustainable SI,” he said. “Our educational system doesn’t teach things like red-lining of neighborhoods by banks and insurance companies, or about systematic racism and inequality. The main goal of the training is to get people out of their silos and to develop empathy. Sustainable SI helps to open peoples’ eyes and to see the issues that need to be addressed, and then, get to work,” Tarulli said.

Panelist Cesar Vargas, the director of the Dream Action Coalition, has his own emotionally compelling immigration story (Google him!). But on June 22nd, he spoke about how the powers that be use race and class to divide people. “Being present can make a difference. What matters is loyalty to our communities. It’s about being there,” he said. Gonzalo Mercado, representing La Colmena, a community group that works with day laborers and other low-wage workers, described how immigrant workers labor up to eighty hours a week, yet are still too poor to feed themselves—hungry, poor,and exhausted. Mercado pointed to their fantastically high rate of injury and death on the job. He described the global nature of immigration—that economic devastation in other countries forces people to flee their homelands. “There are no legal ways for people to come to the US, and employers like it like this, since it makes it easier to exploit these workers,” he said.

John McBeth, from Occupy the Block, spoke a bit about his background and impetus for getting involved with this group. He grew up in the West Brighton Projects and returned to Staten Island after a tour of duty in the Navy. There, he found the same situation he had left and decided to make a stand. “I wanted to lift up my brothers,” he said. McBeth eloquently described the situations in place that leave people feeling there is no way out. He described the injustices of systematic racism and discrimination-in housing; in the schools; in the criminal “justice” system; the fact that the poor pay more, and that children do not dream any more. “Dreams are what cause people to move, to act, and to move beyond their dreams,” he said. Occupy the Block brings resources and information into the community. It addresses the opioid epidemic and gun violence. “The idea behind Occupy the Block, is that you continue working with your organization, but also work with others—with us. We use our bodies—we do it ourselves. This is our community. Do the work and the resources will come,” McBeth said.

Each panelist offered some signs of hopeful initiatives that have the possibility of leading a way out of poverty and hopelessness—increasing wages; workers’ cooperatives; community banks; educating people about their rights,and so on. The author Les Leopold spoke about the basic facts of economic inequality. Rather than reviewing these dismal statistics, let’s concentrate on a program developed by Leopold, and available to everybody, on-line. Start by Googling his Feb. 15, 2017 article, “Runaway Inequality Elected Trump. Here’s How It Can Defeat Him.” Then Google his website—at: RunawayInequality.org. Here you can read about what has the potential to become a broad community movement. It has a popular agenda, one with the potential to unite people, a petition, and more.

These ideas are taking root on Staten Island. As Joe Tarulli said: “We are using this program for so much. Now we all have to get out of our silos.” There are some common threads weaving through all of this activity. They include a commitment to change; to empowering people; to building leadership-and sharing it; to trying new models; and to looking at problems systematically, as inter-connected, and with a global perspective. Gandhi said: “Be the change you want to see in the world.” Progressives on Staten Island are putting this powerful idea into action.


Jane LaTour is a New York City labor activist and journalist. She is the author of Sisters in the Brotherhoods: Working Women Organizing for Equality in New York City and is working on an oral history about union dissidents and the limits of reform in organized labor. She can be reached at jlatour13@gmail.com.

02.08.2017 Waging Nonviolence

Coalition paves way for Palestinian homecoming after 20-year displacement
The group arrives at Sarura on May 19, having walked a mile or two from Al Tuwani, just outside of Firing Zone 918. Ashley Bohrer, in the black leather jacket has co-led the last two CJNV delegations (Image by WNV/Gili Getz)

By

A new project in the rural hills of the West Bank, called Sumud: Freedom Camp, is the latest sign of a resurgence of strategic, nonviolent organizing in Palestine that is creating strong bonds between Palestinians and Jewish activists from Israel and around the world.

I traveled to Palestine in May with a delegation organized by the Center for Jewish Nonviolence, or CJNV, to help build Sumud, which means steadfastness, following a call by Palestinian communities. Using the hashtag #WeAreSumud, the camp was organized by an unique coalition of Palestinians, Israelis, Jews and international justice seekers standing in solidarity with the village of Sarura.

The families of Sarura were displaced from their homes in the 1980s and 1990s, and want to return to their lands and sustain their homes, which they still legally own. The land of Sarura was declared a restricted military zone as part of Firing Zone 918, when 1,300 Bedouins were cleared out of a dozen hamlets south of Hebron, just north of the Israeli border. The residents have faced continuous settler violence and harassment including the poisoning of livestock and wells. After decades of injustice, marginalization and occupation, the Sumud Coalition is calling for an end to the systematic displacement of Palestinians, the dismantling of Firing Zone 918, and a future of justice, dignity, freedom and equality for all.

How it began

On May 19, after walking to Sarura from nearby Al-Tuwani, Issa Amro of Hebron’s Youth Against Settlements welcomed everyone with a brief history of the area and a call to steadfast nonviolence.

“We encourage everyone to do nonviolent resistance. Historically, our prisoners have one of the best nonviolent movements ever in Palestine,” Amro said, speaking of the political prisoners who were on hunger strike at that time. “They motivate us to go on with our nonviolent resistance that will change the situation on the ground. We’re going to start work now. If the army comes, ignore them. It’s our land. You are in solidarity with the landowners. We are here, and we’re not leaving.”

Fadal Aamer and his family have led this return to Sarura. We laid a concrete floor in Aamer’s family cave, which Israel evicted them from 20 years ago, and where they’ve lived since their return. We restored walking paths and paved a portion of road which helps reduce costs of supplying such outlying communities. We erected large tents over old stone-walled areas and danced exuberant, semi-traditional, Palestinian dabkah around a fire. People observed Shabbat in different ways as they saw fit.

On the second night, a little before midnight, the Israeli army violently showed up and seized, illegally, Palestinian-owned tents, a generator and food, while also pouring water on sleeping gear and wrecking a projector. They pushed and pulled people as we created nonviolent walls by linking arms to hold or reclaim our space. While we were not able to block their vehicles from leaving with our supplies, it was clear that they were ordered to take things away, not people.

The next night, Aamer’s oven made the first pita bread in Sarura in 20 years. The camp has persevered, despite the army taking more gear in subsequent incursions. They impounded a car owned by Aamer’s son and detained him. The coalition is raising money to replace items rather than pay exorbitant ransoms for their return.

The second phase of the Sumud camp was to hold on at least through the holy month of Ramadan. International and local supporters worked days and vigiled all night. All That’s Left, an Israeli-based collective unequivocally opposed to the occupation and committed to building the diaspora angle of resistance, helped coordinate rides from Israel. Members of the popular committee of nearby Um Il-Kheir were key to keeping Sumud going through the nights of Ramadan. On June 26, there was a celebration in Sarura for Eid al Fitr, which marked the successful conclusion of this phase.

“I especially want to thank the internationals who came,” Aamer told the group. ” God willing, we will continue in our steadfastness and our resiliency in this camp. This is our land, and we will remain in it until we die in this land. No settler, no soldier is going to take us out of this land. Only God will take us out of this place.”

The significance of solidarity

Those with the CJNV delegation readily agreed to follow the direction of our group leaders like Isaac Kates-Rose and Palestinians like Issa Amro and Sami Awad of Holy Land Trust to leave interactions with settlers, military and police to them. During the night raid’s chaos, they simultaneously argued about our rights with the army in Hebrew, Arabic and English, joined and led chants, told us when to hold space and when to regroup, kept an amazing sense of humor and helped us find success, despite the partial destruction of our camp.

A Palestinian-led steering committee — that includes partners like CJNV, Holy Land Trust, Combatants for Peace and others — was formed months in advance for Sumud and continues to map out a strategy going forward. International and Israeli Jews were asked to consciously apply the privilege granted to them by the oppressive state to get in its way.

“Your presence here has an effect on the occupation more than the effect of using weapons,” said Mahmoud, an elder from al-Mufaqarah, a Palestinian community near Sarura. “Any of you who carries a passport other than a Palestinian passport is an obstacle to the occupation, and I thank you for coming here. You represent the Palestinians in nonviolence and will go into the world and tell people that God willing, together we will end the occupation.”

A vital feature of the Sumud effort is how it has brought together various “popular committees” from small, rural communities in the hills south of Hebron — which coordinate much of the activism and community engagement resisting the occupation — with more urban, nonviolent organizing groups like Holy Land Trust and Youth Against Settlements.

What comes next

After the 2016 delegation, some of the people and communities CJNV visited and worked with were quickly targeted by Israel and settler groups with extra-judicial demolitions and legal action. Nonetheless they have been very involved in the return to Sarura.

Issa Amro, who is often referred to as “a Palestinian Gandhi,” was back in military court on July 9 over old, trumped-up charges filed shortly after a CJNV delegation in 2016. In the Occupied Territories, Palestinians are legally treated as guilty until proven innocent under a set of laws that apply only to them, not to Israeli citizens or internationals. Despite the 99.74 percent conviction rate of Palestinians in Israeli military courts, Amro’s case was extended until October for his next hearing.

The people of Um Il-Kheir have suffered through two more rounds of demolitions since CJNV and local children painted a mural on the side of their soon-to-be destroyed community center. The third phase for Sumud will see a continuation of international support and attention, but less of a presence on the ground.

New lines of communication were devised and strengthened for Sumud with the hope that they will continue to be helpful even if Israel re-evicts Palestinians from Sarura. Communities that are very close geographically have united around the current effort with renewed cohesion. Palestinians are steadfast in sharing mutual aid despite the various types of roadblocks put up by Israel and its hostile settlers. Unjust scrutiny and attack are already part of Palestinians’ daily life, and the coalition behind Sumud is encouraging internationals — and Jews in particular — to join them in their struggle on the ground.

03.08.2017 – New York City Corporate Europe Observatory

Building Resistance to Trump on Staten Island

By Jane LaTour

New York City, with an estimated population of 8.55 million inhabitants, is made up of 5 distinctive boroughs—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Staten Island.  Most New Yorkers think of Staten Island, the city’s largest, whitest and least populous borough, as the most right-wing part of the city.  After all, it provided the margins that put both former Mayors Michael Bloomberg and Rudolph Giuliani into office, and in November 2016, gave Donald Trump 57 percent of their vote. It’s the borough where Eric Garner was murdered by cops.

However, like most other places, Staten Island is not a homogenous, politically monochromatic borough, but is comprised of diverse people of various political stripes, including lots of progressives. Like other boroughs, it’s made up of geographical points—the North Shore and the South Shore, and neighborhoods, each with its own character and demographics. A 25-minute trip on the Staten Island Ferry brings you to the borough that has famously dwelt in the shadow of Manhattan, but is abuzz with activists who are applying imaginative approaches to all of the issues facing people across America.

Recently, we spent a couple of days talking to Staten Islanders.  We started out at Communications Workers of America (CWA) Local 1102, one of the hotspots of community organizing. The walls of the local’s meeting room are vibrant with hand-drawn posters from picket lines, marches and rallies. The spark plug behind the activity is Steve Lawton, Local 1102’s president,  now serving in his first term. A native of New Jersey, Lawton moved to Staten Island twenty years ago for a job at Verizon. Since then, he has held every elected position in the local—shop steward, business agent, organizer, executive board member—and now president. His road to union activist began when his natural-born rebel instincts kicked in and he witnessed injustice in the workplace. His experience with Occupy Wall Street expanded his vision, as did his college studies.  The stoicism of working people who have to cope with so much abuse on a daily basis frustrates and motivates him. “The real message is—we don’t have to take this,” he said. Devising democratic fight-back campaigns, alongside the members he represents, is his passion.

One transformative campaign was an organizing drive at an E-Z Pass Call Center, with 306 workers. This has turned into a very long struggle. It brought the small local, largely made up of Verizon technicians, face-to-face with one of the nation’s most notorious union-busting law firms, Jackson Lewis. The firm prides itself on being a leader in the field of union-busting. Local 1102 continues the fight on behalf of the Call Center workers, the people who originally approached the union asking for help in addressing their conditions: overworked and underpaid. “It’s a hard fight and we are still up against it,” Lawton said. “But this is their first experience of working with union folks, and good leadership is now showing up.”

A subsequent challenge for the local was the Verizon strike in 2016, which lasted six-and-a half-weeks. During this stand-off between labor and management,  there was ample opportunity to develop creative approaches to building leadership among the ranks of Local 1102. One souvenir of that struggle now hangs on the wall of the local’s meeting room— the “Wall of Honor” Banner. It features dates  and notches—each one marking a day of the strike—and each customer convinced to turn away from entering a Verizon store—to loud eruptions of cheers from the members out on the picket line. The brainchild of Shop Steward Kevin Joyce, it sent a strong visual message to the company about the level of community support for the strikers. Another innovative strategy took on replacement workers—silently. A long line of red-shirted strikers marched to a hotel that was allowing the replacement workers to convene in their parking lot, and stood silently outside while a delegation met with management; then walked back to the local—triumphant—replacement workers routed.

“My main theme is that the mission is greater than the union it serves. It has to be present and active in the community,” Lawton said. To that end, the local is developing an organizational model that empowers the members to take responsibility for planning and carrying out their activities. “Those who choose to take part set the agenda. They use their intellect, imagination, and creativity, and apply them to their workplace problems, and to all of the issues around us,” he said. There are now committees that meet to deal with workplace and safety issues, and training for rank and file leaders to explore issues related to economic justice.

The coalition, Sustainable Staten Island, grew out of the Verizon strike. It now has a vibrant presence in the community. “It’s important for labor to be involved and to come together with our community partners. In this way, our impact is broader,” Lawton said. “Economic, workplace rights, human rights, and environmental rights are all connected. The same principles of liberty and freedom apply, and we can’t limit our fight for these rights to the halls of our legislatures,” he said. Sustainable Staten Island works with other unions, the New York State Nurses Association, the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 726, the Professional Staff Congress, the American Postal Workers Union, among others, and several grass-roots organizations, including Staten Island Peace Action, Move Forward Staten Island, and others.

On June 22nd, Sustainable Staten Island held a public forum on economic inequality, with expert speakers from a range of community organizations. “Over 50 Staten Islanders from diverse backgrounds filled the room to discuss Runaway Inequality. Whereas Les Leopold wrote the book, CWA Local 1102 is putting it into action. There is a political renaissance happening and the epicenter is Staten Island, New York,” said Lawton. We had an opportunity to talk to many of those in the room, and to listen to the remarks of the panelists.

Staten Island Peace Action was well-represented. Two of its founding members attended: Rich Florentino, a retired engineer, and current candidate for a seat on the City Council—on the Democrats’ side, and Jim Clark, an activist whose organizing spans decades. Three young organizers, Mike and Ashley Santangelo, and Delfina Vannucci, described the mission of the peace group and its various activities. Members took part in the April 29th Climate March and Rally on Staten Island (which attracted over 500 people), while their main focus is working against war and violence, and related issues. They show documentary films about how other nations are impacted by the militarism of the U.S. They distribute fliers at the SI Ferry Terminal, explaining where taxpayers’ money is going for military expenditures. They took part in a blockade and vigil at the United Nations on June 17th, in support of UN negotiations to adopt a treaty to ban nuclear weapons. And they engage in conversations on Parent-Teacher Nights to present alternatives for the children to military service. They have lobbied against the depot for storage of long-range nuclear missiles on Staten Island.

Ashley Santangelo was encouraged to join SIPA by her husband, Mike, but has always been opposed to war. “I was a senior in high school when 9/11 happened. My peers were all talking about the need to go to war, but I disagreed with that sentiment,” she said. “It’s tricky to get people involved in these global issues because they don’t see the relevance. Especially now, with so many domestic crises. But I like the effort that Peace Action makes to do that,” she said. One of the events favored by Delfina Vannucci is the bi-monthly lectures. “Our last event was about the risks of nuclear war in the Trump era,” she said. The group also tables at various events. “This Saturday, we’ll be at La Isla, a festival with music and performances. Peace Action also takes part in events held by Black Lives Matter, Occupy the Block, Pride Day, and other LGBTQ events,” she said.

CWA Local 1102 Shop Steward Joe Tarulli acted as moderator for the panel discussion. He has taken part in the training provided by the local for community and union activists. “We have about seventy participants through Sustainable SI,” he said. “Our educational system doesn’t teach things like red-lining of neighborhoods by banks and insurance companies, or about systematic racism and inequality. The main goal of the training is to get people out of their silos and to develop empathy. Sustainable SI helps to open peoples’ eyes and to see the issues that need to be addressed, and then, get to work,” Tarulli said.

Panelist Cesar Vargas, the director of the Dream Action Coalition, has his own emotionally compelling immigration story (Google him!). But on June 22nd, he spoke about how the powers that be use race and class to divide people. “Being present can make a difference. What matters is loyalty to our communities. It’s about being there,” he said. Gonzalo Mercado, representing La Colmena, a community group that works with day laborers and other low-wage workers, described how immigrant workers labor up to eighty hours a week, yet are still too poor to feed themselves—hungry, poor,and exhausted. Mercado pointed to their fantastically high rate of injury and death on the job. He described the global nature of immigration—that economic devastation in other countries forces people to flee their homelands. “There are no legal ways for people to come to the US, and employers like it like this, since it makes it easier to exploit these workers,” he said.

John McBeth, from Occupy the Block, spoke a bit about his background and impetus for getting involved with this group. He grew up in the West Brighton Projects and returned to Staten Island after a tour of duty in the Navy. There, he found the same situation he had left and decided to make a stand. “I wanted to lift up my brothers,” he said. McBeth eloquently described the situations in place that leave people feeling there is no way out. He described the injustices of systematic racism and discrimination-in housing; in the schools; in the criminal “justice” system; the fact that the poor pay more, and that children do not dream any more. “Dreams are what cause people to move, to act, and to move beyond their dreams,” he said. Occupy the Block brings resources and information into the community. It addresses the opioid epidemic and gun violence. “The idea behind Occupy the Block, is that you continue working with your organization, but also work with others—with us. We use our bodies—we do it ourselves. This is our community. Do the work and the resources will come,” McBeth said.

Each panelist offered some signs of hopeful initiatives that have the possibility of leading a way out of poverty and hopelessness—increasing wages; workers’ cooperatives; community banks; educating people about their rights,and so on. The author Les Leopold spoke about the basic facts of economic inequality. Rather than reviewing these dismal statistics, let’s concentrate on a program developed by Leopold, and available to everybody, on-line. Start by Googling his Feb. 15, 2017 article, “Runaway Inequality Elected Trump. Here’s How It Can Defeat Him.” Then Google his website—at: RunawayInequality.org. Here you can read about what has the potential to become a broad community movement. It has a popular agenda, one with the potential to unite people, a petition, and more.

These ideas are taking root on Staten Island. As Joe Tarulli said: “We are using this program for so much. Now we all have to get out of our silos.” There are some common threads weaving through all of this activity. They include a commitment to change; to empowering people; to building leadership-and sharing it; to trying new models; and to looking at problems systematically, as inter-connected, and with a global perspective. Gandhi said: “Be the change you want to see in the world.” Progressives on Staten Island are putting this powerful idea into action.


Jane LaTour is a New York City labor activist and journalist. She is the author of Sisters in the Brotherhoods: Working Women Organizing for Equality in New York City and is working on an oral history about union dissidents and the limits of reform in organized labor. She can be reached at jlatour13@gmail.com.

02.08.2017 TRANSCEND Media Service

The Bilateral Relationship That Matters
(Image by http://www.promosaik.blogspot.com)

By Chandra Muzaffar

Which is the most important bilateral relationship in the international arena today?  Many analysts would argue that it is the relationship between the United States of America and China that has the greatest significance for the world. Some see it as the relationship between an established power and a rising power which has often led to war in the past. They quote the great 4th century BC Greek historian, Thucydides who had observed that “it was the rise of Athens and the fear that this instilled in Sparta that made war inevitable.” Contemporary thinkers like Graham T. Allison who coined the term ‘The  Thucydides Trap’ point out that over the last 500 years there have been 16 instances in which an established power had felt threatened by a rising power and 12 of them ended in war. One of the most devastating was the war between Britain and Germany which was at the crux of the First World War from 1914 to 1918. On the other hand, the US took over the mantle of British imperial power after the Second World War in 1945 in a relatively peaceful manner.

I do not see the US and China going to war.  Burdened by perpetual wars and massive debts running into trillions of dollars, a huge segment of the US populace has no appetite for another conflagration that will further sap the nation’s energies. At the same time, the Chinese leadership knows that a war with a technologically superior military power will be a severe blow to the country’s economic and social development which remains its foremost goal. However this does not mean that the US and China will be able to transact a peaceful transfer of power. The US it is obvious is not prepared to accept with equanimity its overall decline as a hegemon. This is why there will be skirmishes and conflicts from time to time as we witness the end of the era of US helmed Western global dominance and the birth of a new phase in international relations.

At the core of this new phase is another bilateral relationship which I regard as far more critical in shaping the present and the future. This is the relationship between China and Russia which is at its zenith at this point in time. It is a relationship that covers the entire gamut from finance, energy and agriculture to military and security ties and to close coordination on regional and global political issues. The leaders of the two countries, Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin, who have forged a strong inter-personal bond, approved in July 2017 the 2017-20 implementation outline for the Treaty of Good Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation between China and Russia.

This ever strengthening bond between the world’s most populous nation and its biggest geographical entity will not only hasten the demise of US hegemony but will also accelerate the emergence of a multi-polar global order. A number of other states are already linked to China and Russia through BRICS and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). These bodies are further buttressed by initiatives such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) project and the Eurasian Economic Union. Though the participants in all these endeavours are not always on the same page on various challenges confronting the human family today, they will help to diffuse and disperse power at the regional and global levels. A multi-polar world by definition will allow for the growth of multilateral institutions and the enhancement of international law. In short, it will be good for global peace.

Of course, the developing Sino-Russian bond is not without its challenges. Let us not forget that China and Russia (the Soviet Union) in spite of their common communist ideology, quarrelled with one another from the fifties to the eighties, over a variety of issues pertaining to economic approaches, political strategies and simply power and influence in other parts of the world. This time however by emphasising solid economic cooperation and forging common political positions on global conflicts that affect both nations, Presidents XI and Putin have succeeded in anchoring Sino-Russian ties in shared interests that really matter to them. Besides, the US’s pursuit of its hegemonic agenda in the vicinity of China and Russia has undoubtedly brought the two states closer together. Chinese and Russian leaders are only too aware that there are concerted moves by the intelligence apparatus in the US and elsewhere to drive a wedge between China and Russia. If anything it has increased their determination to remain united.

31.07.2017 TRANSCEND Media Service

Global Peace Index 2017
(Image by Global Peace Index)

The 2017 Global Peace Index finds that the world became more peaceful in the last year; however, over the last decade it has become significantly less peaceful. Top 5: Iceland, New Zealand, Portugal, Austria, Denmark.

The 2017 GPI provides a comprehensive analysis on the state of peace. It shows that amidst continuing social and political turmoil, the world continues to spend enormous resources on creating and containing violence but very little on peace. The key to reversing the decline in peace is through building Positive Peace – a holistic framework of the key attitudes, institutions and structures which build peace in the long term. The 2017 GPI finds:

  • The world slightly improved in peace last year but has become less peaceful over the last decade
  • There has been a decline in militarisation over the past three decades
  • Globally, the economic impact of violence on the economy is enormous
  • Current peacebuilding spending focused on building peace is well below the optimal level
  • Falls in Positive Peace make countries susceptible to populist political movements

Most of the nations in the GPI became more peaceful over the last year. 93 countries improved while 68 deteriorated. Over the longer run however, there has been an increase in ‘peace inequality’, with most countries having only small increases in peacefulness, while a handful of countries have had very large deteriorations in peace.

Iceland remains the most peaceful country in the world, a position it has held since 2008. It is joined at the top of the index by New Zealand, Portugal, Austria, and Denmark, all of which were ranked highly in the 2016 GPI. There was also very little change at the bottom of the index. Syria remains the least peaceful country in the world, followed by Afghanistan, Iraq, South Sudan, and Yemen.

Iceland is joined at the top of the index by New Zealand, Portugal, Austria, and Denmark, all of which were ranked highly in the 2016 Global Peace Index.

The largest regional deteriorations in the score occurred in North America, followed by sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The score for North America deteriorated entirely as a result of the US, which more than offset a mild improvement in Canada. The US’s score has been dragged down largely because of a deterioration in several indicators: the homicide rate, level of perceived criminality in society and the intensity of organised internal conflict. The latter measure has deteriorated because of the increased levels of political polarisation within the US political system. The US also has experienced the fourth largest drop in Positive Peace globally, after Syria, Greece and Hungry in the ten years to 2015.

Europe remains the most peaceful region in the world, with eight of the ten most peaceful countries coming from this region. However, while 21 of the 34 countries improved, the average peace score did not change notably, due to the substantial deterioration in Turkey, the impact of the terrorist attacks in Belgium and France, and deteriorating relations between Russia and its Nordic neighbours.

The indicator with the largest improvement was number, duration and role in external conflicts. This was mainly due to many countries winding down their involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. While in most cases the withdrawal of troops occurred some years ago, the indicator is lagging in order to capture the lingering effect of conflict. The indicator measuring political terror also significantly improved in all regions except sub-Saharan Africa and the MENA. There were also general reductions in the number of homicides per 100,000 people and the level of violent crime.

The ten-year trend in peacefulness finds that global peacefulness has deteriorated by 2.14 per cent since 2008, with 52 per cent of GPI countries recording a deterioration, while 48 per cent improved. The global level of peacefulness deteriorated rapidly after the global financial crisis, however since 2010, the movements have been within a small range, resulting in this year’s levels of peacefulness returning to approximately the same level as in 2010.

The heightened media attention on conflict in the Middle East, refugee flows and terrorism in Europe has meant several positive trends have not been as widely covered. Two of the more positive trends from the last decade are decreases in the homicide rate for 67 per cent of the countries covered and improvements in the Political Terror Scale which measures state sponsored violence, such as extra-judicial killings and torture, where 68 countries improved, compared to 46 that deteriorated.

On average, violence accounts for 37% of GDP in the ten least peaceful countries, compared to only 3% for the ten most peaceful.

Looking at the economic impact of conflict, the research found that in 2016 it was $14.3 trillion or 12.6% of world GDP. While still staggeringly high at $1,953 for every person in the world, this represents a slight (3%) decrease from 2015 and the first reduction since 2011. On average, violence accounts for 37% of GDP in the ten least peaceful countries, compared to only 3% for the ten most peaceful. Syria remains the least peaceful country for the fifth year running, having fallen 64 places since the index began – the largest decline of the past decade.

The report also assesses recent political developments in Europe finding that the sharp increase in support for populist parties in the past decade closely corresponds with deteriorations in Positive Peace. While Europe’s overall score on Positive Peace improved very slightly from 2005 to 2015 by 0.3 per cent, its improvement is well behind the global average improvement of 1.6 per cent. Many of the core EU countries recorded substantial deteriorations, including Italy, France and Spain. Increased perceived levels of corruption within the political elite, rising inequality in wealth, deterioration in press freedoms and media concentration, along with diminishing Acceptance of the Rights of Others are linked to many of the issues populist parties have successfully capitalised on. This demonstrates how the negative trends in Positive Peace across Europe cannot be separated from the rise of populism across the continent.

 

30.07.2017 Pressenza London

Six principles of nonviolence
Gandhi at Dandi, South Gujarat, picking salt on the beach at the end of the Salt March, 5 April 1930. (Image by Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

By Michael Nagler 27 July 2017 for openDemocracy

Nonviolence can be a safe, effective and lasting way to defeat injustice, but like any other science it takes knowledge, courage and determination.

Here are six guidelines that can help you carry out nonviolent action more safely and effectively, while drawing upon nonviolent practices from your own cultural heritage. These guidelines derive, as you’ll see, from two basic points to bear in mind:

We are not against other people, only what they are doing.

Means are ends in the making; nothing good can ultimately result from violence.

1. Respect everyone–including yourself.

The more we respect others, the more effectively we can persuade them to change. Never use humiliation as a tool–or accept humiliation from others, as that only degrades everyone. Remember, no one can degrade you without your permission.

Healing relationships is the real success in nonviolence, something violence can never achieve. Even in a case of extreme violence, Gandhi felt it was possible to hate the sin, not the sinner. In 1942, when India was held down by the British and fearing a Japanese invasion, he advised his fellow compatriots:

“If we were a free country, things could be done nonviolently to prevent the Japanese from entering the country. As it is, nonviolent resistance could commence the moment the Japanese affect a landing.”

Thus, nonviolent resisters would refuse them any help, even water. For it is no part of their duty to help anyone to steal their country. But if a Japanese person had missed their way and was dying of thirst and sought help as a human being, a nonviolent resister, who may not regard anyone as his enemy, would give water to the thirsty one. Suppose the Japanese compel resisters to give them water; the resisters must die in the act of resistance.

2. Always include constructive alternatives.

Concrete action is always more powerful than mere symbolism, especially when that action creates constructive alternatives: setting up schools, forming cottage industries, establishing farming cooperatives, devising community-friendly banking. As Buckminster Fuller said, “You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.”

Gandhi initiated 18 projects that enabled Indians to take charge of their own society, making it much easier to “dismiss” British rule and lay the groundwork for their own democracy. Constructive work has many advantages:

It enables people to break their dependency on a regime by creating their own goods and services. You cannot get rid of oppressors when you depend on them for essentials. You are not just reacting to offenses but taking charge. Being proactive helps you shed passivity, fear and helplessness.

It gives a movement continuity, as it can continue when direct resistance is not advisable.

Studies have shown that working together is the most effective way to unite people. It builds community and reassures the general public that your movement is not a danger to the social order.

Most importantly, it establishes the infrastructure that will be needed when the oppressive regime falls. Many an insurrection has succeeded in dislodging a hated regime only to find a new set of oppressors rush into the vacuum.

A good rule of thumb to follow is: be constructive wherever possible, and obstructive wherever necessary.

3. Be aware of the long term.

Nonviolent action always has positive results, sometimes more than we intended. When China was passing through a severe famine in the 1950s, the US branch of Fellowship of Reconciliation organized a mail-in campaign to get President Eisenhower to send surplus food to China. Some 35,000 Americans took part. Our message to the President was a simple inscription from Isaiah: “If thine enemy hunger, feed him.” It seemed as if there was no response. But 25 years later, we learned that we had averted a proposal to bomb targets in Mainland China during the Korean War! At a key meeting of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Eisenhower announced: “Gentlemen, since 35,000 Americans want us to feed the Chinese, this is hardly the time to start bombing them.”

Violence sometimes “works” in the sense that it forces a particular change, but in the long run, it leads to more misery and disorder. We do not have control over the results of our actions, but we can have control over the means we use, even our feelings and our states of mind. Here’s a handy formula: Violence sometimes “works” but it never works (in making things or relationships better, for example). Nonviolence sometimes “works” and always works.

Have clear goals. Cling to essentials (like human dignity) and be clear about your principles, but be ready to change tactics or compromise on anything else. Remember, you are not in a power struggle (though the opponent may think that way): you are in a struggle for justice and human dignity. In nonviolence, you can lose all the battles but still go on to win the war!

4. Look for win-win solutions.

You are trying to rebuild relationships rather than score “victories.” In a conflict, we can feel that in order for one side to win the other must lose, which is not true. Therefore, we do not seek to be winners or rise over others; we seek to learn and make things better for all.

During intense negotiations over the Montgomery, Alabama segregation laws, Martin Luther King, Jr., made an interesting observation that he notes in his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. An attorney for the city bus company who had obstructed the African-American people’s demands for desegregation revealed the real source of his objection: “If we granted the Negroes these demands they would go about boasting of a victory that they had won over the white people; and this we will not stand for.”

Reflecting on this, King advised the participants in the movement not to gloat or boast, reminding them: “Through nonviolence we avoid the temptation of taking on the psychology of victors.” The “psychology of victors” belongs to the age-old dynamic of me-against-you, but the nonviolent person sees life as a “co-evolution” toward loving community in which all can thrive. Gloating over “victories” can actually undo hard-won gains.

5. Use power carefully.

We are conditioned, especially in the West, to think that power “grows out of the barrel of a gun.” There is indeed a kind of power that comes from threats and brute force–but it is powerless if we refuse to comply with it.

There is another kind of power that comes from truth. Let us say that you have been petitioning to eliminate an injustice. Perhaps you have made your feelings known in polite but firm protest actions, yet the other party is not responding. Then you must, as Gandhi said, “not only speak to the head but move the heart also.” We can make the injustice clear by taking upon ourselves the suffering inherent in the unjust system. This allows us to mobilize Satyagraha, or “truth force.” In extreme cases, we may need to do it at the risk of our own lives, which is why it is good to be very clear about our goals. Do this with care.

History, and often our own experience, has shown that even bitter hostilities can melt with this kind of persuasion that seeks to open the eyes of the opponent, whom we do not coerce. Nonetheless, there are times when we must use forms of coercion. For example, when a dictator refuses to step down, we have to act immediately to end the vast amounts of human suffering caused by that person misusing power. Still, it requires strategic thinking and nonviolent care to do it right. But when time does allow, we use the power of patience and persuasion, of enduring rather than inflicting suffering. The changes brought about by persuasion are lasting: one who is persuaded stays persuaded, while someone who is coerced will be just waiting for a chance for revenge.

6. Claim our legacy.

Nonviolence no longer needs to take place in a vacuum. Always note that if you are using nonviolence with courage, determination and a clear strategy, you will more than likely succeed: win or lose, you will be playing your part in a great transformation of human relationships that our future depends on.

These six principles are founded on a belief that all life is an interconnected whole and that when we understand our real needs, we are not in competition with anyone. As Martin Luther King said, “I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be. And you can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be.”

This article was first published in Nonviolence.

About the author

Michael Nagler is Founder of the Metta Center for Nonviolence and author of The Nonviolence Handbook: A Practical Guidebook.

 

30.07.2017 – London UK Silvia Swinden

Fake news by algorhythm
Toy robots on display at the Museo del Objeto del Objeto in Mexico City (Image by AlejandroLinaresGarcia, Wikimedia Commons)

Today I opened my Facebook and discovered that two of my very good friends in another country were getting married. It seemed odd as they have been together for many years, they have grown up children and did not make any announcements. But the FB post looked genuine; there were relevant pictures and various congratulations. So I sent a message to the ‘bride’ who confirmed they are not getting married, simply when she attempted to put in a new email FB asked her if she’s married and to whom, and created the posting all by itself.

We are used to dismissing all kinds of fake news posted on FB whether out of malice, gullibility or dark reasons impossible to fathom but we can in general detect some kind of human intention behind them.

The fact that FB can produce fake news out of an accident of algorithm creates a different issue. I have been following with interest the discussion between Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk about the future of AI.

‘The groundwork for the world’s nerdiest fight was laid by Musk, the Tesla and SpaceX CEO, earlier this month, when he pushed again for the proactive regulation of artificial intelligence because he believes it poses a “fundamental risk to the existence of civilization”…“I keep sounding the alarm bell, but until people see robots going down the street killing people, they don’t know how to react, because it seems so ethereal,” he said.’…when asked for his opinion in the matter ‘Zuckerberg said: “I have pretty strong opinions on this. I am optimistic. And I think people who are naysayers and try to drum up these doomsday scenarios – I just, I don’t understand it. It’s really negative and in some ways I actually think it is pretty irresponsible.” The Guardian.

But it seems that before we see the robots coming to take over the world we may see some pretty worrying accidents simply because the algorithms that deal with most of the automated tasks of the online giants are given every time more complex tasks they may not be able to cope with. Small samples are already visible, these fake news about my friends sound harmless enough but who knows what kind of permutations may produce other less benign ‘information’ to influence the behaviour of those who believe everything they see in social media.

Another software accident happened to FB when a mistake left the names of those who regulate content available to the public:

‘Revealed: Facebook exposed identities of moderators to suspected terrorists. A security lapse that affected more than 1,000 workers forced one moderator into hiding – and he still lives in constant fear for his safety’ The Guardian.

Human intentionality, the way consciousness structures data from senses and memory, has a direction and an emotional tone. The whole of humanity tries to move away from suffering and towards meaningful happiness. Even if it gets it wrong (e.g., increasing violence) it is possible to understand the roots of the malfunction: fear, frustration, injustice, indoctrination, greed.

If algorithms organise their own structuring we should not attribute intentionality to them. Only humans can give direction. Machines will follow a certain logic, given by its human creators but the search for AI necessarily introduces the possibility of random connections, a certain ‘freedom’ that makes the difference with simple calculators.

Since the moment Alan Turing, the father of modern computers, created the Turing test (whose objective was to detect the moment of no longer being able to differentiate responses given by a human from those given by a computer) the race to exit the constrains of human control was on. More worryingly human ethics have lost a lot of ground in research in a society where profit is the highest value. And in the era of transnational cyberspace no nation state can hope to apply rules and regulations set up by, however imperfect, their democratic mechanisms. In other words, a new kind of totalitarian regime is deciding what kind of technology will shape our lives.

So, it is not the case of becoming a Luddite or a paranoid technophobe and fear the robots. The danger right now is in human intentions which will decide whether Artificial Intelligence or Artificial Stupidity will prevail. Only humanising the values of society can move technology in the right direction.

28.07.2017 – Tunisia Deutsche Welle

Tunisia: Women celebrate their rights
(Image by Deutsche Welle)

Decades of protest have paid off: Tunisia’s parliament has passed a historic law on violence against women. It punishes all forms of violence and sets the country up for a potential cultural revolution. Tunisia’s parliament approved legislation on Wednesday that protects women from all forms of violence. The country’s Family Minister Naziha Laabidi called it a “historic project.” “It’s a very important law,” said Abir Alhaj Mawas, a sociologist who works for Terre des Femmes, a women’s rights nongovernmental organization. The law addresses women who are isolated, she said, so that they can enjoy rights already common for women elsewhere, such as in Europe. The … Read more

27.07.2017 David Swanson

What’s Missing from Dunkirk Film

By David Swanson

Yes, I’m going to tell you what’s missing from this film without watching the film. Trump has, as promised, made me so sick of winning that I really could enjoy watching a defeat film, but I think I’ll pass. If I’m wrong about what’s missing from it (I mean one of the many things that are, no doubt, missing from it), I promise that I will eat an entire plan for victory in Afghanistan annually for the next decade.

One of the oddest things about World War II is how it has been marketed as a humanitarian war since the moment it ended.

One reason this is odd is that several times the number of people killed in German concentration camps were killed outside of them in the war (at least 50 million worldwide vs. 9 million killed in the camps). And the majority of those people were civilians. So a war against killing people in camps would be a very strange way to understand World War II, unless killing many more people can be made an acceptable means of opposing killing people. The scale of the killing, wounding, and destroying made WWII the single worst thing humanity has ever done to itself in any short space of time.

Even odder is that zero effort was actually ever made to prevent the mass-murder in the concentration camps. There was no poster asking you to help Uncle Sam save the Jews. A ship of Jewish refugees from Germany was chased away from Miami by the U.S. Coast Guard. The U.S. and other nations refused to accept Jewish refugees, and the majority of the U.S. public supported that position. The U.S. engaged in no diplomatic or military effort to save the victims in the Nazi concentration camps. Anne Frank was denied a U.S. visa.

Peace groups that questioned Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his foreign secretary about shipping Jews out of Germany to save them were told that, while Hitler might very well agree to the plan, it would be too much trouble and require too many ships. Here is an interesting passage from Nicholson Baker:

“Anthony Eden, Britain’s foreign secretary, who’d been tasked by Churchill with handling queries about refugees, dealt coldly with one of many important delegations, saying that any diplomatic effort to obtain the release of the Jews from Hitler was ‘fantastically impossible.’ On a trip to the United States, Eden candidly told Cordell Hull, the secretary of state, that the real difficulty with asking Hitler for the Jews was that ‘Hitler might well take us up on any such offer, and there simply are not enough ships and means of transportation in the world to handle them.’ Churchill agreed. ‘Even were we to obtain permission to withdraw all the Jews,’ he wrote in reply to one pleading letter, ‘transport alone presents a problem which will be difficult of solution.’ Not enough shipping and transport? Two years earlier, the British had evacuated nearly 340,000 men from the beaches of Dunkirk in just nine days. The U.S. Air Force had many thousands of new planes. During even a brief armistice, the Allies could have airlifted and transported refugees in very large numbers out of the German sphere.”

In other words, the story of Dunkirk, the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of soldiers, is a story of how the Allies treated people they had some use for, and a demonstration of how they could have treated other people if they had had any use for them.

Since the moment the war ended, the U.S. military has had enormous use for those it callously allowed the Nazis to murder. They have been front and center in the argument for war after war after war.

Since World War II, during what U.S. academics think of as a period of unprecedented peace, the United States military has killed some 20 million people, overthrown at least 36 governments, interfered in 81 foreign elections, attempted to assassinate over 50 foreign leaders, and dropped bombs on people in over 30 countries. This extravaganza of criminal killing is documented here. But it isn’t much of a secret. To my knowledge, every single military assault has involved a reference to a new Hitler and a passionate plea to retroactively save his victims. Of course the humanitarian consequences have differed dramatically from those stated intentions.

Somehow I doubt any of that is mentioned in the Dunkirk film.

Categories: Culture and Media, North America, Opinions, Peace and Disarmament

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Dietrich Bonhoeffer

We must act and dare the appropiateness and not whatever comes to our mind not floating in the likelihood but grasp the reality as brave as we can be freedom lies in action not in the absence of mind obedience knows the essence of good and satisfies it, freedom dares to act and returns God the ultimate judgment of what is right and what is wrong, Obedience performs blindly but Freedom is wide awake Freedom wants to know why, Obedience has its hands tied, Freedom is inventive obedient man respects God’s commands and by virtu of his Freedom, he creats new commands. Both Obedience and Freedom come true in responsability (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)

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