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20.10.2020 – The Ecologist

Hacking the earth?
(Image by Pexels)

Bill McGuire

Geo-engineering ‘turns hearts and minds away from the cause of the climate crisis and inevitably dilutes the urgency with which it must be addressed’.

The belief that ‘fixing’ global heating through the application of technology is possible, even desirable, is not new to the readers of The Ecologist.

Beyond such an enlightened audience, however, the idea of using so-called geoengineering to solve the climate crisis has yet to register. Nonetheless, under the radar, the approach is continuing to gain ground and – in some circles at least – a degree of respectability.

Read: Getting geo-engineering back-to-front

To those of us opposed to the whole notion of deliberately messing with the climate to sort out the unwitting mess we have already made of it, this is the thin end of a very dangerous wedge.

Technology 

It is a truth much acknowledged, that when you find yourself in a hole, the best course of action is to stop digging. This applies as much to screwing with the climate as anything else – except even more so. The problem is, while global temperatures continue to ramp up, sea-level rise accelerates and extreme weather becomes the norm, we are still wielding the spade with as much relish as ever.

Consequently – and setting aside the small reduction arising from Covid-19 lockdown – we continue, year-on-year, to load the atmosphere with every increasing quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

At the same time, our failure to reel in a runaway global carbon budget is adding ever more weight to the argument, that the only way we can knock that pesky global heating on the head is via some form of technological tweak.

The dawning idea that we have the ways and means to interfere intentionally and on a massive scale with the global environment goes back at least to the 1950s, when Edward Teller – ill-famed ‘father of the H-bomb’ –  advocated weather modification for military purposes.

In later years, this putative inspiration for Dr. Strangelove went on to propose giant reflective mirrors in orbit, or the scattering of billions of tiny reflective spheres throughout the stratosphere, as possible ways of tackling rising global temperatures.

Backstop

Today, the techie schemes touted as having the best potential to check global heating and the climate collapse that marches in step with it, are less wild and wacky, but no less risky for that. Whether they involve blocking some of the sun’s input (solar radiation management), easing the path of heat escaping from the Earth’s surface (Earth radiation management) or sucking carbon dioxide directly or indirectly from the air – which does what it says on the tin – all the potential fixes are untried and untested.

As such, they are no more than planetary-scale experiments that carry no guarantee of success, nor a warranty against unforeseen consequences that – at worst – could be catastrophic.

In essence then, the concept of geoengineering – in whatever form – is an insurance policy; a backstop. As such, it’s very existence turns hearts and minds away from the cause of the climate crisis and inevitably dilutes the urgency with which it must be addressed.

As we learned from the interminable Brexit negotiations, backstops are rarely a good idea. Inevitably, they sow mistrust, are invariably contrived and tailored to support vested interest. By their very nature, they are untried and untested and there is no evidence they will work.

Furthermore, the geoengineering backstop suffers from a major conceptual problem, in that it is aimed explicitly at tackling the symptoms of the climate emergency, rather than the cause.

Emissions 

Geoengineering, then, is no panacea, nor does it constitute an either or choice vis a vis simply cutting back on emissions. On its own, in fact, it cannot work, and its adoption can only be considered in tandem with deep cuts in emissions.

In the absence of such cuts, schemes to suck carbon out of the atmosphere would have little, if any, useful impact. Even worse, any go it alone plan to artificially reduce global temperatures would inevitably become locked-in for the long term.

If, for some reason, such measures were curtailed suddenly at some future time, the result would be a precipitous and almost certainly catastrophic global temperature hike. In other words, geoengineering is not a silver bullet, rather – at best – it is a sticking plaster that might buy some time for the climate to heal; a backstop that – on its own – solves nothing.

So, let’s get real. There is only one solution to the climate emergency – only one way to keep the global average temperature rise (since pre-industrial times) to below the 1.5°C guardrail – and that is by slashing greenhouse gas emissions now, at the rate the science demands.

Instead of inflicting reckless experiments upon an already damaged world, we need to be tooling up for meeting a global net zero carbon target as soon as we can. This can only be accomplished if we make emissions reductions – rather than economic growth – the priority, although there is plenty of evidence that the two can go hand-in-hand.

Action

This is eminently doable and there is plenty of historical precedent for such rapid transitions. After the Pearl Harbour attack by the Japanese in December 1941, for example, the US transformed its economy almost overnight. During the next twelve months, production of cars, merchant ships and sewing machines was replaced by tanks, aircraft carriers and guns, on a prodigious scale, as the country’s war machine ousted consumer-based manufacturing.

We need the same thing to happen now. The signs of change are already here. In the UK, it looks increasingly likely that petrol and diesel cars will be outlawed by 2030. Just this week, Airbus Industries announced three designs for hydrogen-powered passenger planes that they expect to be in service within 15 years.

Oil company BP made it known recently that – in its view – demand for oil may already have peaked. In the US, a new report from the America’s Pledge on Climate Change initiative showed how aggressive federal action could slash the country’s emissions in half within just 10 years.

The bottom line, then, is that we don’t need and don’t want any more tinkering with our already fragile climate. It’s not nice and it’s not necessary.

Let’s instead throw our weight behind emissions cuts that really bite, beginning with the UK-hosted COP26 Climate Conference in Glasgow next year. Let no-one be in any doubt, provided we want it badly enough, we can do this!

This Author 

Bill McGuire is professor emeritus of geophysical & climate hazards at University College London, a co-director of the New Weather Institute and a patron of Scientists for Global Responsibility. His novel, Skyseed – an eco-thriller about geoengineering gone wrong – is published by The Book Guild.

 The original article can be found on our partner’s website here

20.10.2020 – Cristina Mirra

This post is also available in: ItalianGerman

1 million signatures to stop intensive farming

October 2nd 12:00 p.m. – More than one million signatures have been collected all over Europe to put an end to cage farming. This goal has been achieved thanks to 170 animal rights organizations, environmental and consumers’ groups that gathered together to defend the animals’ rights and provide them a decent life. This has been the third petition as regards to the amount of signatures collected and the first one in defense of farmed animals.

Reality has exceeded all hopeful expectations: among 1.6 million signatures collected,1.4 million have been certified and we know that one million is the minimum necessary for European Citizens’ activities to be effective.

#EndTheCageAge coalition has become a real movement of citizens who have been fighting together every step of the way.

Two busy years have passed:
●the European citizens’ initiative End The Cage Age has been launched
●an amazing amount of signatures have been collected to say #StopCages and to put an end to this cruelty
●as required by the European Commission, all signatures of each Member State have been verified and validated

It has been a tremendous job which led to some results that will have to be taken into account by politicians, farmers and all civil society, who cannot help but ask themselves “Whose side am I on?”

It seems to be a significant first step and Pressenza, which is sensitive to all rights, will keep you updated on practices and outcomes.

Translation by Roberta Mereu, from the voluntary Pressenza translation team. We are looking for volunteers!

18.10.2020 – Brussels – Agorà degli Abitanti della Terra

This post is also available in: SpanishFrenchItalian

COVID-19 People’s lives have been sacrificed to the economic interests of the dominant powers
Credit Image: Pressenza (Image by Credit image: Pressenza)

They have once again failed to give priority to human beings, to life, over the economic interests of the “lords of the world” who, over the last 50 years, have done nothing but steal and destroy life on Earth.

Friday evening, 16 October, members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) rejected the proposal by India, South Africa, Kenya and Eswatini to suspend certain provisions of the TRIPS Treaties – which regulate intellectual property rights globally – concerning patents for tests, medical treatments and vaccines against the COVID-19 pandemic.

The proposal did not seek to abolish the patent regime, but only to suspend its application for the period necessary to allow the world’s population to have access to the Covid-19 therapy on an equal footing and in a just manner.

This  decision is unacceptable. The big private global pharmaceutical companies and the global financial markets have won. There is no need to shout scandal because the scandal is the system itself. Based on the principles of neo-liberal capitalist society, it gives the WTO, the international organisation competent in the field of trade, independent from the UN, greater decision-making power in health matters than that attributed to the WHO (World Health Organisation), thus legalising the primacy of private commercial and financial imperatives over the requirements and universal human rights to health. Patents matter more than health.

We believe, on this day which also “celebrates” the fight against poverty, that it is time for humanity to fight for its liberation/independence from the domination of the current “lords of the world”.

Agora of the Inhabitants of the Earth

Contacts: secretariat.audace@gmail.com

Brussels 17 October 2020

16.10.2020 – Barcelona, Cataluña – REHUNO – Red Humanista de Noticias en Salud

This post is also available in: SpanishFrenchGermanCatalanGreek

Marea Blanca mobilizes from the social base to guarantee quality public health

Rehuno interviews Esperanza Fernández, nurse, member of Marea Blanca Catalunya and of the Humanist Movement.

Marea Blanca is a social movement made up of about sixty entities that act on Catalan territory in connection with the “tides” of the territory of the State. Its objectives are to stop the cuts in health and to guarantee public, universal and quality health for all citizens.

By Cloty Rubio

Rehuno: When was Marea Blanca de Catalunya born?

Esperanza Fernández: It was incorporated in February 2015, but its antecedents go back further. It has already started to move away from the cuts to health initiated in 2011 in Catalonia by Artur Mas, former president of the Generalitat de Catalunya.

     Artur Mas eliminated 5,000 professionals from the health system by reducing Human Resources,      made budget cuts which currently place Catalonia in the last place of the “ranking” compared to the rest of the Autonomous Communities.

Rehuno: One of Marea Blanca Catalunya’s (MBC) main complaints is concerned with cuts in primary care. In the current context of the health emergency due to Covid-19, how have these cuts been highlighted, as a complaint from MBC?

EF: You have to take into account that primary care is the gateway to public health. From there, the patient can be directed to different specialties. The person is in direct contact with his doctor and his appointed nurse within an EAP (primary care team) who know the pathologies and the needs of their patients and, in this perspective, provide quality follow-up.

When a state of health emergency was declared for Covid-19, agendas were closed in all EAPs. Telephone support has been implemented in all MDTs(Multi-Disciplinary State) both to screen for possible Covid-19 and to monitor chronic disease, acute visits or communicate diagnostic test results.

At present, no agenda for doctors or nurses have yet been opened.

As have been already denounced before the Parliament of Catalonia, Marea Blanca (MBC) is concerned and fears that this form of action will end up implementing a model of telephone service, reducing and preventing patients from being treated by their doctor and nurse.

Rehuno: But phone service also makes it easy to contact and resolve the issue quickly, as long as it doesn’t require face-to-face exploration. Don’t you think so ?

EF: This may be valid in some cases, but not in general. For example, A stomach ache. Without being able to examine it and which has dragged on for some time can be serious and it is only when you are in a serious, serious condition that they will visit you. And important diagnoses can go unnoticed. In face-to-face care in your primary care facility, the doctor already knows you and will examine you carefully, advancing the diagnosis before reaching the extreme and avoiding an emergency room admission.

Rehuno: Regarding the management of this Covid-19 crisis by the health authorities, what does MBC think?

EF: It was very chaotic. Every day, the protocols were improvised with contradictory orders, generating confusion among professionals. EAPs (primary care teams) lacked PPE (personal protective equipment), a common occurrence throughout the state.

In Spain, according to data from the Ministry of Health, (as of August 8, 2020), 55,824 professionals have been infected and 63 have died (according to data established as of June 5, 2020)

Rehuno: Is there an open dialogue between health authorities and primary care teams to deal with the current health emergency?

EF: Not at all. It is decreed and ordered without taking into account our point of view. For example, in this crisis, the issue of Covid-19 has been prioritized, leaving aside other important and urgent health issues.

Rehuno: And how could the situation have been approached otherwise, according to Marea Blanca?

EF: Depending on the needs of each team, two or three doctors and nurses could have been assigned to the care of Covid-19 users and the rest of the staff continued with the usual care practice, without having to drastically modify the functioning of the patients. primary care teams. But the Ministry of Health imposed this way of operating.

Rehuno: During the lockdown, people went out to the balcony every day to applaud the health workers, a nice gesture that encouraged them. But then we learned of layoffs, depressions and a lack of staff in public health. What does our healthcare system urgently need?

EF: As I said, since the budget cuts in 2011, there are no longer the same guarantees.
The lack of staff, for example. During sick or vacation leave, there are not enough professionals hired, which leads to overwork. This situation leads to fatigue, chronic fatigue, and frustration with not being able to provide optimal patient care.

Rehuno: Right now, what would be the most important thing to clean up the system and provide it with resources?

EF: We ask that the financial allowance for primary care be increased. The funding gap has been dragging since 2011.

The Department of Health has presented a plan to strengthen primary care. According to this, it will devote some 300 million euros to technological improvements and staff increases by 2022.

This improvement plan is late and insufficient. It does not compensate for the cuts in 2011: 350 million per year, and 3,000 fewer professionals. Effective responses to urgent situations continue to be delayed.

     We have a great lack of resources and neoliberal policies have started to reduce public health to promote private enterprises.

Rehuno: How do you see the future of public health from the movements that defend it and from you in particular?

EF: What worries us the most now is the return to normal activity and the return of scheduled visits. And, also being able to honor a public and universal health service.

Marea Blanca is emerging in new municipalities, we need a social conscience and we are thinking about what we have and how to improve it. We cannot let ourselves be robbed and not say anything.
As a humanist, I consider that the neoliberal system over the past decades has destroyed public services all over Europe with impunity. This has resulted in the degradation and dehumanization of the public system.

     To get out of this situation, we must become aware of what we have in common, of what makes the common good, organize ourselves in a united manner, and demand from our leaders good management of the public that we support with our taxes

English-speaking Quakers today are in dire need of some new “spiritual” books, and I have a top candidate to recommend here. It is John Calvi’s How far Have You Traveled? Amid all the wonderful stuff that’s in it, some of what makes Calvi’s book so excellent is what’s not in it. For example — and…

John Calvi: Boon Companion for Spiritual Travel — A Friendly Letter

Save the date! December 11 and 12, 8am PST/11am EST, via Zoom webconference, Quaker Theological Discussion Group will hold its two sessions for the year. QTDG usually meets in conjunction with the American Academy of Religion and Society of Biblical Literature annual conferences, and we will do so again—all sessions will be virtual. More details […]

2020 Quaker Theological Discussion Group Sessions for AAR — Quaker Religious Thought and Quaker Theological Discussion Group

16.10.2020 – Pressenza Athens

This post is also available in: Greek

The Courage of Non-Violence against the Madness of Nuclear Arms

By Nikos Stergiou

On July 7, 2017, an almost decade-long, non-violent international mobilization of organizations and entities achieved one of the greatest victories of organized civil society at an international diplomatic level. It was the day that the text of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was adopted by 2/3 of the member countries of the United Nations. Three years later, it has already been signed by 84 states, 46 of which have ratified it. There remain only 4 more for it to come into force. https://www.icanw.org/signature_and_ratification_status

It took a vast campaign and the mobilization of organizations, entities and citizens during more than a decade to achieve this result. This coordinated effort led to the creation of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2018. From the beginning of the struggle, the principles of the process for a Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons were established, based on the ethics of non-violence: the use of nuclear weapons is immoral, absolute and indiscriminate due to the uncontrollable magnitude of the catastrophe they cause to mankind and the environment. Also, the vast financial resources which are needed for the maintenance of 13,000+ nuclear warheads approached $73 billion in 2019. These funds could be channeled towards public services – Health, Education, Protection of the Environment and Quality of Life. https://www.icanw.org/global_nuclear_weapons_spending_2020

From the date when it comes into force, TPNW prohibits nations from developing, testing, producing, manufacturing, transporting, possessing, storing, using or threatening to use nuclear weapons or allow the deployment of nuclear weapons on their territory. It also forbids them from assisting, encouraging or inciting anyone to participate in any of these activities. It is a question of “the beginning of the end of nuclear weapons”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDr89x6u_Os

The 9 countries which currently possess nuclear weapons have not signed or ratified TPNW. Quite a few of them did not even participate in the discussions at the UN on the final text. In Europe, only 6 countries have signed and ratified TPNW, three of them from the EU. Greece did not participate in the discussions on the final text of TPNW, abstained from voting on its approval, and has not signed or ratified the final text, noting that it is one of the 21 countries bound by individual agreements or treaties (e.g. NATO) to host nuclear warheads if needed.

Within this insanity of the ‘usefulness’ of nuclear weapons and their delusional defense, especially by the states which possess them, the call for the ratification of TPNW by those states which have not yet done so continues. Since nuclear weapons were designed to destroy cities, local communities and municipalities all over the world play an important role in raising the question of human (if not planetary) survival. With great joy, the international community which supports TPNW accepted into its fold the first two municipalities from Greece which signed the petition addressed to the Greek Government to ratify TPNW. The municipalities of Ancient Olympia and Ayios Evstratios lead the way with courage for other municipalities in our country so that Greece will unite with whichever countries struggle for a world without the fear of a nuclear catastrophe.

The “World without Wars and Violence” movement, as an international partner of ICAN, calls upon other municipalities to follow the example of Ancient Olympia and Ayios Evstratios and create a strong movement in Greece to push for the ratification of TPNW by the Greek Government. The time has come for us to put an end to nuclear weapons before they put an end to humanity.

*Nikos Stergiou is the president of the Greek branch of the organization “World without Wars and Violence”.

16.10.2020 – Pressenza Athens

This post is also available in: Greek

The Courage of Non-Violence against the Madness of Nuclear Arms

By Nikos Stergiou

On July 7, 2017, an almost decade-long, non-violent international mobilization of organizations and entities achieved one of the greatest victories of organized civil society at an international diplomatic level. It was the day that the text of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was adopted by 2/3 of the member countries of the United Nations. Three years later, it has already been signed by 84 states, 46 of which have ratified it. There remain only 4 more for it to come into force. https://www.icanw.org/signature_and_ratification_status

It took a vast campaign and the mobilization of organizations, entities and citizens during more than a decade to achieve this result. This coordinated effort led to the creation of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2018. From the beginning of the struggle, the principles of the process for a Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons were established, based on the ethics of non-violence: the use of nuclear weapons is immoral, absolute and indiscriminate due to the uncontrollable magnitude of the catastrophe they cause to mankind and the environment. Also, the vast financial resources which are needed for the maintenance of 13,000+ nuclear warheads approached $73 billion in 2019. These funds could be channeled towards public services – Health, Education, Protection of the Environment and Quality of Life. https://www.icanw.org/global_nuclear_weapons_spending_2020

From the date when it comes into force, TPNW prohibits nations from developing, testing, producing, manufacturing, transporting, possessing, storing, using or threatening to use nuclear weapons or allow the deployment of nuclear weapons on their territory. It also forbids them from assisting, encouraging or inciting anyone to participate in any of these activities. It is a question of “the beginning of the end of nuclear weapons”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDr89x6u_Os

The 9 countries which currently possess nuclear weapons have not signed or ratified TPNW. Quite a few of them did not even participate in the discussions at the UN on the final text. In Europe, only 6 countries have signed and ratified TPNW, three of them from the EU. Greece did not participate in the discussions on the final text of TPNW, abstained from voting on its approval, and has not signed or ratified the final text, noting that it is one of the 21 countries bound by individual agreements or treaties (e.g. NATO) to host nuclear warheads if needed.

Within this insanity of the ‘usefulness’ of nuclear weapons and their delusional defense, especially by the states which possess them, the call for the ratification of TPNW by those states which have not yet done so continues. Since nuclear weapons were designed to destroy cities, local communities and municipalities all over the world play an important role in raising the question of human (if not planetary) survival. With great joy, the international community which supports TPNW accepted into its fold the first two municipalities from Greece which signed the petition addressed to the Greek Government to ratify TPNW. The municipalities of Ancient Olympia and Ayios Evstratios lead the way with courage for other municipalities in our country so that Greece will unite with whichever countries struggle for a world without the fear of a nuclear catastrophe.

The “World without Wars and Violence” movement, as an international partner of ICAN, calls upon other municipalities to follow the example of Ancient Olympia and Ayios Evstratios and create a strong movement in Greece to push for the ratification of TPNW by the Greek Government. The time has come for us to put an end to nuclear weapons before they put an end to humanity.

*Nikos Stergiou is the president of the Greek branch of the organization “World without Wars and Violence”.

Translation by Jeannette Arduino, from the voluntary Pressenza translation team. We are looking for volunteers!

Happy birthday to William Penn, born in 1644.Penn was born to a military father, but became a Quaker as a young man.Because his father was an admiral and a ‘Sir,’ William had the right (which ‘commoners’ did not) to wear a sword. Quakers were not only pacifists, but also did not recognize differing status among people and eschewed emblems of rank. William, as a Quaker, began to doubt whether the wearing of a sword was something he should continue to do. He asked George Fox, the founder of the Quaker faith and his mentor, whether he should wear it or stop wearing it.Fox’s answer, famously, was, “Wear it as long as thou canst.”(I love that.) William soon took off his sword, never to wear it again.And yes, he was the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania, the land of which was granted to him as payment of a debt from the Crown to his (deceased) father. He treated the Lenape people who land it was with fairness and respect, including negotiating his use of the land, and maintained good relations with the First Peoples.He fathered 16 children (with two successive wives), only 5 of whom achieved actual adulthood.Things didn’t always go very well for him, and one of his children was a disappointment to the extend to causing financial devastation to the family. His two sons who ‘inherited’ Pennsylvania after his death completely dismantled the Quakerly government and policies, and made it into a commercial and intolerant state. However, Quaker influence continues to exist there.Penn was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, and his book No Cross No Crown (1669), which he wrote while in prison, became a classic of Christian theological literature.Penn returned to England with his second wife, where he lived out his life and was buried at Jordans Meetinghouse. That Meetinghouse is still a place of Quaker worship. Penn is buried there, next to his first wife.[As far as I know, he never grew an oat. Quaker Oats has NOTHING AT ALL to do with Quakers, though it is said that the ‘standing Quaker man’ of that company’s logo is based on Penn’s appearance.]

14.10.2020 – International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

This post is also available in: ItalianGreek

Tuvalu ratifies UN nuclear weapon ban treaty
(Image by wagingpeace.org)

The Pacific island nation of Tuvalu ratified the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons on 13 October 2020, becoming the 47th nation in the world to do so. Only three more ratifications are now needed to bring this crucial treaty into force. The treaty will establish a comprehensive ban on the worst weapons of mass destruction and help pave the way to their total elimination.

Earlier this month, Tuvalu and 11 other Pacific small island developing states delivered a joint statement to the United Nations on the occasion of the International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. They noted that their region has suffered from the effects of decades of nuclear testing by the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

“More than 300 nuclear tests were carried out in the Pacific from 1946 to 1996 – in the atmosphere, underground and underwater. Our communities living close to ground zero were relocated from their ancestral islands and restricted from using the ocean resources for their livelihoods, and they faced an increase in related health problems,” they said.

The 12 nations appealed to all nations that have not yet done so to ratify the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, as well as the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty of 1996. “We Pacific small island developing states say no to nuclear weapons, and we reiterate our commitment to the elimination of nuclear weapons everywhere.”

Tuvalu is the ninth Pacific island nation to join the nuclear weapon ban treaty so far, following Palau, New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Samoa, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Fiji and Niue. In addition, Nauru has signed but not yet ratified the treaty.

Tuvalu was among the first nations to sign the treaty when it opened for signature on 20 September 2017. In an address to the United Nations following the signing ceremony, it said: “It is our fervent hope that nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction … are totally banned and prohibited worldwide by the UN.”

In 2016, Tuvalu co-sponsored the UN General Assembly resolution that established the formal mandate for states to commence the negotiations in 2017 on “a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination”.

Earlier in 2016, Tuvalu, together with Fiji, Nauru, Palau and Samoa, submitted a working paper to a UN working group in Geneva arguing that “the debate should no longer be about whether a global ban on nuclear weapons is necessary, but rather how we can achieve it and what provisions it should contain”.

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Dietrich Bonhoeffer

We must act and dare the appropiateness and not whatever comes to our mind not floating in the likelihood but grasp the reality as brave as we can be freedom lies in action not in the absence of mind obedience knows the essence of good and satisfies it, freedom dares to act and returns God the ultimate judgment of what is right and what is wrong, Obedience performs blindly but Freedom is wide awake Freedom wants to know why, Obedience has its hands tied, Freedom is inventive obedient man respects God’s commands and by virtu of his Freedom, he creats new commands. Both Obedience and Freedom come true in responsability (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)

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